A Tiger and Headhunters: Flying Across the Hump… Part 3 of 3

Wandering through Time and Place

The plane John Dallen was flying across the Hump in World War II crashed in Manipur and John walked out. This photo was taken of John immediately after he walked out of the jungle when his plane crashed while he was flying the Hump in World War II. He is holding the boots he wore. His parachute pack is in front.

This is my final post on Peggy’s dad, John Dallen, when he was forced to bail out into Burma jungle when returning from a flight into China across the Himalayan Mountains. 

“The conditions were at their worst—raining, pitch black and over territory regarded as plenty rugged. I landed in a jungle so dense that I couldn’t even move. The only sensible thing to do was to pull part of the parachute over me and try to catch some sleep.”

John Dallen in a letter to his wife Helen on February 18, 1945— eight days after he had parachuted out of his damaged C-109 over an Indian jungle when…

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Bailing out in a Stormy, Dark Night into an Unknown Jungle: Flying the Hump in World War II… Part 2 of 3

Wandering through Time and Place

An Army Air Transport plane flies across the Hump in World War II. For years, this painting of a C-109 flying the Hump was hung in my father-in-law’s home. It reminded him of his experience in World War II of flying supplies from India to China across the Himalaya Mountains. The painting now hangs in our son Tony’s home.

This is part II of my story about when Peggy’s dad, John Dallen, was forced to bail out of his plane on a pitch black, stormy night into a Burma jungle while returning from a flight across the Himalayan Mountains during World War II.

On February 10, 1945, my wife Peggy’s dad, John Dallen, began an adventure that would become an important part of our family history. At the time, he was  serving as a World War II pilot for the Army Air Corps, flying fuel, ordinance, and troops from India into China to support Chinese and American efforts in the war against Japan…

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“Your husband Lieutenant John A. Dallen has been reported missing.” Flying the Hump in World War II: Part I

Flying the Hump stirs many memories.
I thought this series of post by Curt Mekemson too good not to reblog.
Enjoy!

Wandering through Time and Place

John Dallen on first solo flight as a member of the Army Air Corps in early World War II. Dressed up in his pilot’s gear and ready for his first solo flight, Peggy’s dad, John Dallen, climbs into the open cockpit of a Boeing Stearman PT-17 biplane. With World War II raging and the need for pilots desperate, John would become an instructor pilot within months of his fist solo flight.

My friend GP Cox has finally reached the point in her massive blog history on the Pacific Theater during World War II where she is discussing the heroic efforts of American pilots who flew across the Himalayan Mountains (The Hump) in an effort to keep China’s fight against Japan alive. Peggy’s dad, John Dallen, was one of the pilots. In honor of G’s efforts at capturing WW II history, I’ve decided to republish a series of three blogs I posted on John in 2014. I was privileged to spend a fair amount of time with John in his last years…

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Flying the Hump – an update

Thanks to a re-blog on “Pacific Paratrooper“, lots of people had a look at my post “Flying the Hump“. A heroic piece of history that should not be forgotten. I decided to post this addition and illustrate it with some  pictures from my files.
And as I dedicated a chapter in  “The Java Gold – Book One” to flying the Hump, here’s an excerpt describing the arrival of one of those flights
American C-47 carrying supplies for Chinese troops in
Suddenly the conversation in the primitive flight office died and everybody looked up. There wasn’t an airman between them who did not hate that sound; the coughing, blathering, backfiring noise of an airplane with engine trouble. They ran outside to see a C47 limping towards the northern end of the runway, its port engine belching and backfiring and leaving a trail of smoke. As they watched in silence, they all knew the pilot had one and only one chance to put his troubled ship down. If he overshot the runway he’d never be able to climb and go around again. So they watched and waited … and prayed.
Somehow the pilot managed to get a final burst of power out of both engines, just enough to cross the runway threshold. He leveled the wings of his staggering plane, cut the power and flared the aircraft. The C47 touched down hard, throwing up a spray of mud and ran down the bumpy runway, rapidly slowing down. It turned near the end and taxied to the loading area where it came to a noisy halt.
Another flight across the ‘Hump’ accomplished
The cargo door opened and the crew climbed stiffly out, the stress still visible in their faces. They waited silently in the shade of the wing for the duty jeep to pick them up. After the short ride across the blazing tarmac they wearily walked into the dispatcher’s office

Capt Bamboo Joe Barube and Lt Ernest Lajoie after a flight

Captain ‘Bamboo Joe’ Barube  and Lt Ernest Lajoie after a flight into China. Source: ‘Life’  Magazine, Sept.11, 1944 issue

.
“Captain Vandermerwe and crew back from Kunming” Peter announced wearily while he dumped the bag containing the flight papers and logbooks on the battered desk.
“Welcome back, captain, had a good flight?”
“No, the port engine fucked up over the Santsung Range and we barely made it past the Patkai’s.”
The dispatcher grunted. No real reply was necessary – he knew those ranges and how many planes had come to grief there during the past three years. More planes and men had been lost through faulty maintenance than to enemy action.
But, he asked himself, who in his right mind would want to work in this Godforsaken place? Where you did not even have a decent hangar? Where your fingers got burned and blistered if you tried to open an engine cowling of a plane that had been parked in the full sun?

Peter handed over the logbooks, loading out manifest and the rest of the documents and for a few moments the dispatcher went over the ‘gripes’ with the crew – the need for an engine replacement was obvious.

Maintenace on the Hump - a bad case of cannibalism

Maintenance on “The Hump”, more like a severe case of cannibalism – Source ‘Life’  Magazine, Sept 11, 1944 issue

The formalities completed Peter picked up his flight bag.
“See you in two weeks!”

“You guys got yourselves some leave?”
“Absolutely; we’ll be going down to Calcutta on the first available transport!”
“Have a good one!” the dispatcher said as they left.

 

 

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An Assam airfield in the rainy season

 

Slaloming between the weird collection of airplanes and equipment that littered this most basic of airfields they made their way to the improvised mess hall. They halted briefly in the doorway to determine what was on today’s menu. The choices were extremely limited. The only food served was either Spam (fried slices of tinned meat) or – the next day – SOS (Shit On a Shingle, creamed ground beef on toast). These delicacies were served with dehydrated potato mash and you could wash it all down with a glass of ‘battery acid’ – a drink made out of concentrated grapefruit juice that seared your stomach lining.
A single sniff was enough: It was bloody SOS again so they decided to skip lunch and have dinner in Calcutta. To quiet their rumbling stomachs they grabbed some hunks of bread, having first ascertained it was not locally baked. Even after three years of roughing it they did not enjoy to find gnats and other stray insects embedded in the dough. Some of the older hands insisted that the baked insects gave the bread a distinctly nutty flavor. But that was definitely an acquired taste…

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“…and yet they fought on!”

The Dutch forces capitulated unconditionally on March 8, 1942 and the Japanese thought their conquest of the Dutch East Indies was complete. But was it?

AussiesTimorA tough group of Australian and Dutch soldiers still held out in Timor. They consisted of the  2/2nd Independent Company or “Sparrow Force”, a unit commanded by Major Alexander Spence that was specially trained for commando-style, stay behind operations.

In early March, Captain Van Straten and his remaining KNIL forces linked up with them. Knowing they would be no-match for the Japanese  in a regular battle, the Allied guerrillas hid themselves  throughout the mountains of Portuguese Timor, from where they commenced raids against the Japanese, assisted by Timorese guides, native carriers and mountain ponies.

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Major Alexander Spence (middle) somewhere in Timor, 1942

Portuguese officials — under Governor Manuel de Abreu Ferreira de Carvalho — remained officially neutral and in charge of civil affairs. But both the Portuguese and the indigenous East Timorese were  sympathetic to the Allies, and allowed them, for instance, to use the local telephone system to communicate among themselves and to gather intelligence on Japanese movements.

 

Aussie radio team Timor

Signaller Keith Richards, Corporal John Donovan and Sergeant Frank Press (left to right) from “Sparrow Force” using a radio on a mountain top in Timor, November 1942. (Photograph by Damien Parer)

The big problem however was that, since the surrender , the survivors of “Sparrow Force” did not have any functioning radio equipment and thus were unable to contact Australia to inform them of their continued resistance. Major Spence ordered Captain George Parker, Signaller Keith Richards, Corporal John Donovan, Signaller Jack Loveless, and Sergeant Jack Sargeant to build a radio out of recycled (or stolen) parts, which they called “Winnie the War Winner”, and re-established contact with Darwin. Their first message was:

“Force intact. Still fighting. Badly need boots, quinine, money, and Tommy-gun ammunition”.

From then on, a veritable guerrilla war developed in Timor. The Japanese were forced to commit an ever increasing number of troops to battle the elusive and deadly Australian -Dutch stay-behind raiders. They would become associated with the phrase “you alone do not surrender to us“, which was contained in a message by the Japanese commander on Timor, Lieutenant General Yuichi Tsuchihashi, demanding the men of Sparrow Force to stop fighting and capitulate. Winston Churchill later stated: “they alone did not surrender.”
The small group prevented an entire Japanese division from being used in the earlier phases of the New Guinea campaign while at the same time inflicting a disproportionate level of casualties on them.
By the end of 1942, there were over 12.000 Japanese troops on timor and the decision was taken to withdraw the Guerrilla’s. The last intelligence team, known as “S” Force was  evacuated by the US Navy submarine USS Gudgeon on February 10, 1943.
Total Allied casualties included around 450 killed, while over 2,000 Japanese were believed to have died in the fighting, but this success came at a high price. Between 40,000 to 70,000 Timorese and Portuguese civilians have been killed during the Japanese occupation. .

Read a more detailed account of the extraordinary effort on my page “Australian-Dutch Guerrillas on Timor”.

 

 

 

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Today, 75 years ago – the Battle of Sunda Strait

In the early morning hours of February 28, 1942, HMAS Perth and the badly damaged USS Houston (CA30) limped into Tanjong Priok

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USS Houston underway in 1940

The Dutch commander, Vice Admiral “Coen” Helfrich insisted that the two survivors of the Battle of the Java Sea, would ASAP depart the death trap the  Java Sea now had become. But after yesterday’s battle both cruisers were low on fuel and short of ammunition, especially 8 inch ‘bricks’.  Fuel was a serious problem as the port installations and bunker facilities had been the target of repeated Japanese airstrikes over the past weeks.
While the dockyard tried to solve this problem Admiral Helfrich’s naval intelligence staff briefed the captains and warned them of a second Japanese invasion fleet approaching Western Java. They urged them to sail an evasive northerly course, first towards the Borneo coast, then due west, hugging the Sumatra shoreline. Thus they might be able to sneak unobserved through the dangerous Sunda strait choke point.
Unfortunately, the Captains next visited Admiral Hugh Palliser, senior British commander present, who did not share the Dutch view. He and his staff advised the commanders to take their vulnerable and unprotected cruisers on a straight, high-speed dash for the Sunda strait and the freedom of the Indian Ocean.

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Captain Hector Waller, RAN

Both ships left port at 17.00 hrs, only half refueled, short of ammunition and unescorted. Disregarding the warning about a Japanese fleet approaching West-Java, Captain Waller immediately set a cracking pace in a desperate effort to pass through Strait Sunda and make a high speed run for Australia.
It was a fatal decision because around 2300 hrs. that night the two cruisers ran straight into Admiral Kezaburo Hara’s Japanese fleet of five cruisers and 12 destroyers, screening the 58 troopships that carried General Hitoshi Imamura’s 16th Army. A ferocious gun battle erupted turning HMAS Perth into a blazing wreck that slipped under the waves around midnight.

Rooks_Albert_H_1941

Captain Al Rooks, USN

USS Houston now became the focal point for the incessant Japanese gun and torpedo salvos. Soon the crippled cruiser was dead in the water, ablaze from stem to stern.. Moments after Captain Rooks ordered ‘abandon ship’ he was killed by a Japanese eight inch shell.
At 01.30 hrs, USS Houston slipped beneath  the waves of Strait Sunda on the 1st of March 1942, ending the prolonged battle for the mastery of the Java Sea and the invasion of Java. The loss of life was horrendous. Out of a crew of 1064, USS Houston lost 632 officers and men. HMAS Perth lost 380 out of a crew of 680.

 

sunda-strait-battle-of371 survivors of the USS Houston were taken prisoner and  were sent to Burma and Thailand and other locations. They slaved on the “Burma-Siam Death Railway” building a railroad through the jungle and in the coal mines, docks and ship yards in Japan and other southeast Asian countries. They spent 42 months in captivity suffering humiliation; torture, both mental and physical; starvation and disease (without medication). Altogether, 163 soldiers and sailors died in captivity and of those 133 died working on the Thai-Burma Death Railroad. Many more died soon after the war as a result of diseases contracted while in captivity.

Visit my page “The Battle of the Sunda Strait” for a more detailed account.
And this battle also prominently figures in “The Odyssey”, Book One of “The Java Gold”.

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Dutch Hurricanes – Too Few, Too Late

hurricane-banner

The Hurricane was the best and fastest airplane we had. But there were too few and they came too late…” said the old Indonesian, who had served as a mechanic in the KNIL Air Arm during those fateful early months in 1942.
“Hurricanes?” I asked as I sat upright in surprise. Even though I was still a schoolboy, I already knew something about KNIL equipment. And I had never heard about Hurricanes in Java.
“Sure, the Brits delivered a bunch of them and we put them together in an old warehouse”.

It now is many years ago since I talked with that old man. I tried to press him for more information, but it was more than forty years ago and the memories were obviously painful. And when he finally talked, I clearly remember the impact his tale had on me. He didn’t speak much about Hurricanes, but told me how he and several others had survived the Japanese onslaught on Java and had tried to make for Australia in a small fishing vessel. How most of them had perished of hunger and thirst before they were rescued by the Australian navy. How he had fought his way back home, only to find his wife and kids murdered during the “Bersiap”, that infamous period of anarchy and random killings by rabid, blood-thirsty mobs that called themselves Islamists. The story of his life planted the seed for what now is the “Java Gold” series of novels. And to honour him, I dedicate this post to him.

Background

The war in Europe had exploded the pre-war myth of the bombers’ invulnerability. Fast, well-armed fighters shot them down by the score. It suddenly dawned on the Dutch government-in-exile that a great number of modern fighters would be needed to defend their revenue generating colony against Japanese aggression. And in 1940, there wasn’t a single fighter in the Dutch East Indies, apart from a few antiquated P6 “Hawks” in storage!

alphabet-book

Image from a WW2 British Alphabet book

Jostling with all other countries that found themselves in dire peril, the hurriedly established Dutch Purchasing Commission scoured the market and bought whatever they could lay their hands on – Brewster Buffaloes, Curtiss P-75 Hawks and CW-21 Interceptors – to plug the gap in a hurry.
But the need for a first class frontline fighter was paramount and the Hawker Hurricane was an obvious choice. However, getting them delivered was something else. To have them built in the UK would be impractical (because of the distance) and production capacity was not available anyway.
On learning that the Canadian Car & Foundry Co. Ltd at Fort William, Ontario, was tooling up to mass-produce Hurricanes in Canada, the commission hurriedly struck a deal with them. A letter of intent for the delivery of 100 Hawker Hurricane Mk.II’s was signed on August 11, 1941. Afraid to put all their eggs in one basket, the commission then went and negotiated with Bell Aircraft for a possible delivery of 72 P-39 ‘Airacobra’s’. Both Bell and the US Government reacted positively and the Canadian order was slightly reduced. On November 29, 1941, a contract was signed for 72 Hurricanes, to be delivered in monthly batches of 15 aircraft, starting in May 1942. An emergency delivery request for twelve Hurricanes fell flat because of a lack of powerplants.
The Canadians started to work immediately and at least one Hurricane (Serial AM270) is reported to have been built to Dutch specifications and used as a test airframe by CCF.

 

hurricanes-at-cancar

The Hurricane assembly line at Canadian Car & Foundry, Fort William, Ontario

 

Alas, the joy of having at least secured a steady delivery of frontline fighters was short-lived. The Japanese surprise attack on December 7, 1941made it clear the ordered Hurricanes would arrive too late.

Due to the rapid Japanese conquest of Malaya and the disastrous losses of Allied air power, the situation in Malaya rapidly became critical,  The delivery of 50 crated Hurricanes to Singapore on January 13 did little to change this. They went into action on January 20, attacking 27 unescorted Japanese bombers over Singapore and shot down eight. From then on, the Japanese sent escorting fighters along and the Hurricanes failed to tilt the balance.
Steadily increasing Japanese air raids on the Singapore airfields whittled away the protecting fighter force of Buffaloes and Hurricanes and, by the end of January, it was decided to move most of the surviving aircraft to Sumatra. Thus, when 48 Hurricanes were launched on January 27 from the carrier HMS Indomitable, they were routed via Batavia to Palembang P2 in Sumatra.

The arrival of the Hurricanes

athene2a

Aircraft Transport HMS Athene seen here as a seaplane tender

On February 4, 1942, HMS Athene reached Batavia, Java, via the cape. On board were 39 crated Hurricanes, a pool of 15 pilots and the ground staff of 242, 258 and 605 squadrons. In view of the rapidly deteriorating military situation in Malaya, it was decided to unload the Hurricanes and disembark the troops in Batavia. Furthermore, it was decided to have the remaining crated Hurricanes shipped from Singapore to Java. The Dutch freighter Phrontis, took four of them and six were taken aboard the Derrymore. The Derrymore, packed with Singapore refugees, was sunk by a Japanese submarine at only 60 miles from Batavia. However, the Phrontis (equally overloaded with refugees) arrived safely. By February 9, 1942, a total of 43 crated Hurricanes had reached Tanjong Priok, the port of Batavia.

 

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The only known photograph of KNIL Hurricanes on Java, seen here on the road between Tanjong Priok and Kemajoran

The desperately needed fighters were erected right there and transported by road to Kemajoran where a team consisting of RAF, ML-KNIL and KNILM personnel worked shifts around the clock in an impressed KNILM hangar. Though hindered by a lack of tools and experience, the first Hurricanes were test-flown by RAF pilots five days after their crated arrival.
RAF and ML-KNIL pilots ferried them to Tjililitan, from where six were flown to Palembang I on February 10, 1942, eight went to PI on February 13 and a final batch of nine was ferried to PI on February 14. Eight Hurricanes went to the RAF reserve in Java and the remaining twelve Hurricanes were handed over to the Dutch forces.

 

 

In Dutch Service

The Hurricanes were officially handed over to 2.VLG.IV on February 10. This squadron had been badly mauled on February 3 during a massive Japanese bomber raid on Surabaya. All 13 available Curtiss CW-21b “Interceptors” had been scrambled from their base at Tanjong Perak but they were attacked from above and behind by sixteen or more Japanese fighters. Seven Interceptors were shot down and three badly damaged. Three Dutch pilots were killed and three severely wounded, while the squadron had managed to shoot down one Japanese fighter and damage another.

On February 13, the remaining pilots of 2 VLG IV flew to Tjililitan to “pick up” their new machines in an attempt to resurrect the badly mauled squadron. This proved not to be an easy task. The differences between the KNIL and British equipment, notably oxygen gear and radio’s caused serious problems. In a desperate bid to speed up conversion to the new type, 1st Lieutenant J.B.H (Jan) Bruinier was ordered to coordinate the efforts. This was based on his RAF service during 1940 and 1941, flying with Nos 92 and 611 squadrons. The fact, that these squadrons were equipped with Spitfires seems to have escaped the commanding officer’s attention.

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An artists impression of a Dutch Hurricane IIb, the desert dust filter still attached. When removed, the aircraft was 30 mph faster. Source: Wingspalette

On February 16, the squadron transferred to Kalidjati for intensive training and arrived in very bad weather. Being the first to land, Lt. Bruinier’s wheels got stuck in the soggy (grass) runway and his machine was badly damaged. The next day, February 17, another Hurricane was lost when Sergeant Hermans suffered an in-flight engine failure and had to crash-land at Kalidjati.The squadron could work on their training program for a week but this caused some irritation with the RAF squadrons and 2 VLG IV was ordered to fly daily “standing patrols”.

 

On February 25, 1942, eight Hurricanes were scrambled to intercept an incoming Japanese raid. After a two-hour patrol at 18.000 feet, no Japanese bombers were found and the Hurricanes returned to refuel. Two Hurricanes had already touched down and a third, flown by Sergeant Jacobs, was about to land when Japanese fighters struck. Jacobs tried to take off again but his Hurricane was riddled by Japanese bullets. He walked away from his crash but the Hurricane was a total loss. The other airborne Hurricanes, already low on fuel, engaged the Japanese in a frantic but short dogfight before they had to break off the action. Three of them landed at Kalidjati, where Ensign Hamming’s Hurricane ended up in a bomb crater. The remaining two Hurricanes landed at the Tjikampek field that held a stock of the required 100 octane fuel. Just after they had returned to Kalidjati, the Japanese struck again, bombing and strafing this time. Hamming’s Hurricane was shot up and the already questionable runways were badly damaged. Of the eight Hurricanes that took off that day, two were damaged beyond repair and two were damaged but repairable.

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RAF no 605 Sqn Hurricane (Source: Aircrew Remembered)

As Kalidjati was now within Japanese bomber and fighter range, it was decided on February 26 to transfer the remaining seven Hurricanes to Ngoro (Blimbing) near Surabaya, a well-hidden field they would share with the P-40’s of the 17th Pursuit Squadron USAAF. This sudden move caused severe logistical problems again. It was not before February 28 that the urgently needed oxygen equipment, hydraulics and ammunition arrived. But the crystals for the pre-set channels of the radio sets had not been shipped.

 

During the night of February 28 / March 1, the Japanese forces invaded the Java north coast at three different locations. All available Hurricanes and USAAF fighters were sortied to attack the Japanese landing barges at Kragan and Banten Bay. During a very low-level attack, Lt. Bruinier’s Hurricane hit a Japanese barge with its prop and he had to make a forced landing at Madiun, followed by Sgt.Major Boonstoppel (reason unknown).

The remaining five Hurricanes (and the USAAF P-40’s) returned safely to Ngoro. A little later, and after being harassed by USAAF P-40’s until they saw the Dutch markings, a ML-KNIL Lockheed 12 arrived, delivering the badly needed radio crystals. Alas, the small transport had been shadowed to the still hidden airfield by two Japanese Zeroes that immediately carried out a strafing attack. All aircraft on the field weer destroyed or damaged beyond repair, with the exception of two Dutch Hurricanes. All damaged airframes were set on fire and what was left of the 17th Pursuit Squadron was evacuated to Australia.

The Dutch decided to fly the two surviving Hurricanes to Andir (Bandung). This was to be done by Lt. Marinus and Ensign Vink, the latter never having flown a Hurricane before… After a five-minute (!) cockpit instruction, Vink managed to take off from Ngoro. But during his flight, he got fuel transfer problems and decided to land at the Wirasaba field to have them fixed. Landing a Hurricane for the first time, he “pranged” the machine and shattered the wooden prop.  As the Wirasaba field was to be evacuated, the Hurricane and two damaged Glenn Martin bombers were set afire by the ground troops.

Marinus found he was low on fuel and decided to land at the new and unfinished Surakarta field. Its runway had already been demolished, so he put the Hurricane down on a dry rice paddy. After staying overnight, he found out there was no 100 octane fuel available. In the end he had his Hurricane filled up with whatever was available, in this case standard car fuel. But when he tried to take off on March 2, his Merlin engine lost power because of the unsuitable fuel. Somehow, he survived and walked away from the crash but the Hurricane was a total loss.

But Sgt.major Boonstoppel had the worst luck of all. After flying from Madiun to Andir, he was sent to Pameumpeuk to refuel. Unfortunately, at that field, only 90 octane fuel was stocked. Stoically, he flew on to Maospati, where he found that this field was also being evacuated. In the end, he returned to Andir, still low on fuel. Next morning, March 3, he was ordered to join an attack on the Japanese forces landing at Eretan Wetan. But when he came to the field, he found the prop removed from his Hurricane by some overzealous ground crew, apparently to “repair”  Vinks pranged Hurricane at Wirasaba. The prop was mounted again in a hurry, but Boonstoppel was too late to join the strike.

This ended the operational life of the Dutch Hawker Hurricanes. A single Hurricane fell into Japanese hands after the Dutch East Indies capitulated on March 8, 1942

Aircraft delivered by HMS Athene and MV Phrontis

Hurricane IIA Z2581; DG614 Hurricane IIB Z5317; Z5319; Z5341; Z5437; Z5546; Z5546; Z5555; Z5556; Z5602; Z5609; Z5612; Z5616; Z5619; Z5622; Z5664; Z5682; Z5683; Z5690; Z5691;BD778; BG677; BG677, BD890; BD892; BD896; BD927; BE149; BE194; BE206; BE210; BE218; BE225; BE293; BE332; BE333; BE362; BE363

So far, the only confirmed aircraft operated by the ML-KNIL were Z5664 and Z5683.

Sources:

Axis history Forum – contributions by Peter C. Boer, Jos Heyman;
Hurricanes over Singapore – Brian C. Cull;
Hawker Hurricane Mk.I – IV – Martin Chorlton
Shorty, an aviation pioneer- James Glassco Henderson
C
anadian Hurricane Production – Google Groups – Geoffrey Sinclair
Author’s collection and documentation

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